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By Schoeffer.; J H West Sheane; A C Madan

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These are K’abeena, Hup, Macedonian Turkish and Khuzistani Arabic, most of which are also part of well-established linguistic areas. K’abeena is discussed for its participation in the Gurage linguistic area (cf. Crass, this volume) and exhibits areal patterns of varying sources. Not surprisingly, most of the contact phenomena found in K’abeena are PATloans. K’abeena has a number of MAT-loans as well, part from lexical elements, it has borrowed a few markers of temporal and causal clauses, discourse markers and interjections.

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De Rooij (this volume) shows that many of the Swahili noun class markers correspond in form and function to those of the substrate languages. The differences – in particular the three markers in question – were borrowed to assimilate Katanga Swahili’s system of noun classification to that of the substrate languages. We are therefore not dealing with a mere MAT-loan of three markers in isolation, but with a general adjustment of two systems that are already largely identical. In the same way we find MAT-loans from current substrate languages in Indonesian.

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