By Graeme Barker
This large research records the long term human cost heritage of the Biferno Valley in central-southern Italy, from its earliest career within the Stone Age correct as much as the current day. Integrating the recommendations of archaeology, heritage and geography, Barker exhibits how payment within the Valley is inextricably associated with the parallel tale of panorama improvement, his topics and topics together with: ways to Mediterranean panorama background; the fashionable panorama; Methodologies of the Biferno Valley Survey; The usual panorama and its evolution; Early prehsitoric cost; the 1st agricultural groups; Iron Age chiefdoms (c.1000-500 BC); Pentri, Frentani and the beginnings of urbanization (c.500--80 BC); Roman cities and territories (c.80 BC-600 AD); The evolution of hilltop villages (AD 600-1500); Feudalism and the `Southern query' (AD 1500 to the present).
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This wide examine records the long term human payment heritage of the Biferno Valley in central-southern Italy, from its earliest profession within the Stone Age correct as much as the current day. Integrating the innovations of archaeology, background and geography, Barker exhibits how cost within the Valley is inextricably associated with the parallel tale of panorama improvement, his topics and matters together with: methods to Mediterranean panorama heritage; the fashionable panorama; Methodologies of the Biferno Valley Survey; The normal panorama and its evolution; Early prehsitoric payment; the 1st agricultural groups; Iron Age chiefdoms (c.
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Additional info for A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in the Biferno Valley
Pasture and rough grazing; 6. woodland; 7. irrigated land; 8. settlements (identified in Figure 5). (Adapted from the Carta della Utilizzazione del Suolo d'ltalia, 1959, foglio 15) 32 THE BIFERNO VALLEY: THE MODERN LANDSCAPE Fig. 14 Women harvesting in the upper Biferno valley in 1953. (Photograph: Frank Monaco) In the Matese mountain, the floors of the major basins are shown as given over partly to crops and partly to pasture, the latter extending up the sides of the basin and over the crests above the tree line.
In the 1970s it was still common to see hand-cultivation in the upper valley (Fig. 18), and cultivation with a light plough drawn by a donkey, horse, or pair of oxen in the upper and middle valley (Fig. 19). In the lower valley, however, the 1960s and 1970s witnessed the change to mechanization that began elsewhere in Italy in the pre-war years, that has fundamentally changed the landscape (and has since extended to much of the middle valley). Animal traction gave way to heavy tractors with caterpillar tracks capable of not bogging down on heavy soils.
La Molisana, the main spaghetti manufacturer of the region, ran a national poster campaign a few years ago with the catchwords 'What? Decent pasta? ' Population densities are amongst the lowest in Italy: in 1978 there were some 320,000 inhabitants, with an average density of about seventy people per square kilometre. The Church and the Christian Democratic Party have been all-powerful influences on the fabric of ordinary life. The recent history of Molise has been characterized by some of the highest unemployment rates, the most extreme disparities between rich and poor, and the most intense rates of emigration of any in the Mezzogiorno - many Molisani have more family in Buffalo or Bedford than at home.