By Dirk Stroobandt
The roots of this booklet, and of the hot learn box that it defines, lie within the scaling of VLSI know-how. With gigahertz process clocks and ever accelerating layout and method thoughts, interconnects became the restricting issue for either functionality and density. This expanding impression of interconnects at the method implementation area necessitates new instruments and analytic recommendations to help the process fashion designer. With admire to modeling and research, the reaction to interconnect dom inance is evolutionary. Atomistic- and grain-level types of interconnect constitution, and function versions at multi-gigahertz working frequencies, jointly consultant the choice of superior fabrics and strategy applied sciences (e. g. , damascene copper wires, low-permittivity dielectrics). formerly in major results (e. g. , mutual inductance) are further into functionality mod els, as older approximations (e. g. , lumped-capacitance gate load types) are discarded. even though, on the system-level and chip making plans point, the required reaction to interconnect dominance is progressive. Convergent layout flows don't require in simple terms dispensed RLC line versions, repeater information, unifi cations with extraction and research, and so on. quite, concerns comparable to wiring layer task, and early prediction of the source and function envelope for the process interconnect (in specific, in response to statistical types of the process interconnect structure), additionally turn into serious. certainly, system-level interconnect prediction has emerged because the enabler of superior interconnect modeling, less costly procedure architectures, and extra efficient layout technology.
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Extra info for A Priori Wire Length Estimates for Digital Design
Floorplanning is a critical step, as it sets up the ground work for a good layout. All modules are given a place (or often a region) in the chip without considering all details, such as the orientation or the exact shape of the module. During placement, the modules are exactly positioned on the chip. The goal of placement is to find a minimum area arrangement for the modules that allows completion of interconnections between modules, while meeting the performance constraints. Placement is typically done in two phases.
N. Sherwani ([She97], p. xvii) Wire length estimates for improving the circuit layout are also very useful for automatic CAD. Moreover, they form a supplementary challenge for the future since future CAD tools for automatic design should be able to choose priorities that are clear to a designer's 'insight' in the design. This is not only beneficial for the system's speed, but, for a fixed calculation time, also the quality of the solution. The importance of a priori wire length distributions for the performance of CAD tools has not always been recognized by the research community.
The importance of a priori wire length distributions for the performance of CAD tools has not always been recognized by the research community. This might explain the fact that very little additional research work has been done since the pioneering works of Rent and especially Donath, at the end of the 70's. The increasing demands put on CAD tools and the ever more important influence of the interconnection structure on the circuit performance make researchers realize that parameter estimation, especially wire length estimation, should become am important research domain.