By Christopher J. Jewell (auth.)
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Extra resources for Agents of the Welfare State: How Caseworkers Respond to Need in the United States, Germany, and Sweden
A “residual” state intervenes only when people are unable to help themselves, for example, only after market and family breakdown. In a “handmaiden” state, policy serves other institutions, so that need is met on the basis of merit, work performance, and productivity. In the most substantive form, an “institutional-redistributive” state is a major, integrated institution in society, providing universal services on the basis of need. Esping-Andersen applied Titmuss’s model in The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (1991).
The market itself becomes the means for assessing people’s employment prospects as well as the primary provider of “services” in the form of wage work. The California case represents an example of the LMA approach, with the primary program option being “Job Clubs” to help clients search for employment. S. 1). A caseworker in a California welfare-to-work office would have a correspondingly limited role to play in moving people off the roles, primarily by monitoring their clients’ independent job search activities.
But by contrast, the Swedish approach is characterized by more limited regulatory codification. National regulations consist of a “frame law” of general principles, while most program guidelines are developed by local government with comparatively limited operational details. ” And, in general, they have greater organizational resources and opportunities to make individualized decisions. They administer a single program narrowly focused on daily living needs, and clerical staff conduct most routine assessments.