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Dates of ca. 39 to 40kya ( I 4 C AMS) for Ucagizli place it late in the IUP or very early Upper Paleolithic timeframe. : 129-30) indicates ages of ca. 46/47kya at Boker Tachtit (Marks 1983a) to perhaps 50kya at Ksar Akil (Mellars and Tixier 1989). Given the latest dates for the Levantine Mousterian of 42 to 48kya at Kebara, Amud: Ksar Akil, and Tor Faraj, the latter of the ILIP dates seems more reasonable. Although an evaluation of the dates is complicated by their large standard errors and the unknown degree to which TL THE LEVANT AND THE MODERN HUMAN DEBATE and 14C years correspond, the dates, as we know them, are not inconsistent with an autochtonous development of the Upper Paleolithic in the Levant.
While not engaged in a settlement study, per sc, Hovers (1997) examined the fit between 23 various adaptive models and expectations in Levantine Mousterian artifacts. Given the wide ranges of specific environmental and topographic settings of these studies, it should not be surprising that no one model appears to hold for the region. Logistical and opportunistic provisioning appears to have been employed in conjunction with multi-season and seasonal occupations. These appear to have occurred both diachronically (Negev) and synchronically (southern Jordan, northern Israel).
Dates for the C-type Industry come from Tabun C, Skhul, Hayonim Upper E, and Qafzeh (Bar-Yosef 2000: 46-7). They range from ca. 92 to 171kya and tend to furnish stronger agreement across the various dating techniques than seen for the earlier, D-Type Industry. Only the TL (ca. 171kya) and ESR (ca. 102 to 119kya) dates from Tabun C show great variance, yet, even these fall within the range of dates shown by the other assemblages. The chronometry of the B-type Industry comes from six sites: Tabun B, Kebara Cave, THE LEVANT AND THE MODERN HUMAN DEBATE o/s \3 KBP Industries 46/47 II ID iL/i 50' B-type sl Sites/Lay ers/Lithic Assemblages Ucagizli »\o „ ~r AMI d /Amuc/ Ksar Akil Kebara TabunB Umm el Tie 1 Boker Tachtit Tor Sabiha Quneitra ?