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By Ernest Jackh

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The relation between the Middle East and Rome discloses a twofold significance in world history: in its political and in its cul- tural aspects. Rome's political history evolved in constant tension Rome and the Middle 50 East. Through its between political genius Rome ROME AND WESTERN CHRISTIANITY succeeded in making use of this tension to sublimate its liistorical temporary expressions, and often dangerous consequences in two syntheses: in the concept of the Roman state and in the universality of the Roman Empire.

Each invader doubtless carried off many Israelitic the first prisoners who, for a time, probably continued to profess their ancestral faith during exile. Moreover, if we are to believe stray Egyptian papyri, some Hebrews had remained in the Nile Valley long after the majority's Exodus. There also were Jewish bazaars in Damascus in the days of Ahab. In short, there perhaps never was a time when all Jews lived in Palestine. 37 THE MIDDLE EAST After the fall of Samaria, a large portion of the northern Ten Tribes was deported into distant lands.

Nothing could be further from the truth. Sparta was a Hellenic kingdom all of whose able-bodied citizens were kept in permanent military and her precarious training. Her exiguous citizen population Modern Fascists geographical position made disciplinarian leadership and training necessary, and the Spartans made a virtue of necessity. In their case the Hellenic eleutheria manifested itself clearly: first they had two kings, lest a single king aspire to absolute rule; second, a board of ephors elected by, and responsible to the citizens, controlled the kings, levied taxes, and exercised the functions of government.

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