By Andrzej Środoń, Kazimierz Tobolski (auth.), Mark G. Tjoelker, Adam Boratyński, Władysław Bugała (eds.)
Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) is a vital tree species with a amazing typical diversity all through Europe and Asia, starting from the Balkan Peninsula to Siberia within the north and from the French Alps within the west to the ocean of Okhotsk within the east. anywhere it happens, it's a key part of either normal and controlled forests. Norway spruce is the main economically important conifer in Europe, generating high quality trees and wooden items.
This publication offers a concise and entire evaluation of the biology, ecology, and administration of Norway spruce. It integrates vintage and modern literature (more than 2000 works brought up within the text), highlighting simple study and forestry practices in primary and japanese Europe. the subjects contain anatomy and morphology, body structure and food, reproductive biology and genetics, and ecology.
In addition, it examines mycorrhiza, illnesses and pests in addition to silviculture and wooden items. within the mild of accelerating threats to wooded area wellbeing and fitness from pollution, weather swap, and bugs and sickness, it offers an important details resource to these thinking about the ecology, conservation, and administration of the species.
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Additional info for Biology and Ecology of Norway Spruce
In phloem ray cells there are numerous calcium oxalate crystals, depending upon the content of available calcium in the soil (KARTUSCH et al. 1991). e. phellogen) that produces the periderm, composed of phellem formed on the outer side by the phellogen, and phelloderm (living parenchyma cells) formed on the inside of the phellogen layer. In spruce the first phellogen arises in the cortex and functions only for one season. Subsequent phellogen cells arise in the deeper layers of secondary phloem.
At the apex there are a fixed number of apical initials, below which the central mother zone is located. Further below there is a pith-rib meristem zone, which produces pith cells. The peripheral meristem zone occurs on the flanks of the apical meristem and produces the scale and needle primordia (Fig. 1). 1. Shoot apex in longitudinal section. Feulgen reaction with fast green. Tannin cells are orange (photo A. HEJNOWICZ) A -shoot apical meristem of the vegetative bud during the initiation of the bud scales for the following year’s bud; early June; B – apical meristem of the male bud during the initiation of the first microsporophylls; early June.
The spruce from Białowieża resembles provences from the north and northeast. KORZENIEWSKI 1953 16 The spruceless belt does not form a distinct limit between the northern and Carpathian populations, but differences exist between populations from western and eastern Carpathians. STASZKIEWICZ 1966, 1967, 1976 The subfossil and contemporary cones from KETNER the western Carpathians do not manifest dif- 1966 fer. The frequencies of the form europaea and acuminata indicate that the polessian populations are of Carpathian origin.