By Mercè Pacios Pujadó
The thesis by means of Mercè Pacios exploits homes of carbon nanotubes to layout novel nanodevices. The sought after electrochemical homes of carbon nanotubes are used to layout assorted electrode configurations. together with the chemical homes and (bio)functionalization versatility, those fabrics end up to be very acceptable for the improvement of electrochemical biosensors. in addition, this paintings additionally evaluates the semiconductor personality of carbon nanotubes (CNT) for sensor know-how by utilizing a box influence transistor configuration (FET). The CNT-FET equipment has been optimized for working in liquid environments. those electrochemical and digital CNT units are hugely promising for biomolecule sensing and for the tracking of organic methods, which may sooner or later bring about purposes for fast and straightforward diagnostics in fields reminiscent of biotechnology, medical and environmental research.
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Extra resources for Carbon Nanotubes as Platforms for Biosensors with Electrochemical and Electronic Transduction
Bonds with hydrogen, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and sometimes quinones, can be formed at the carbon surface. The presence of these groups signifies that the behaviour of these electrodes can be very pH-sensitive, but this has also been purposely used to modify the electrode surface. That is, these groups provide sites for covalent linking to biorecognition elements (or other materials) or for their integration onto polymer surface structures, key points for the development of biosensors. Thus, the advantages of carbon electrodes include low cost, wide potential window, relatively inert electrochemistry, richness in surface chemistry and electrocatalytic activity for a variety of redox reactions.
In other words, the nucleation and growth will happen only if the metal catalyst particle does not exceed a certain size. If the particle is too large and the graphite layer is not sufficiently tight and does not lift off, the particle simply is covered with carbon. Taking as an example methane as precursor gas, the catalytic effect of the metal breaks down the methane into carbon (graphitic and amorphous carbon competing) and hydrogen; this reaction is enhanced in high temperature conditions: CH4 ⇆ C (Cgraphite + Camorphous) + 2H2.
That makes the Schottky barrier for the holes at the source become thin enough to allow for a considerable amount for tunnelling. For intermediate gate voltages, the barrier is too thick for tunnelling and the conductance in the CNT device decreases. At high positive gate voltages, the bands bend down making the Schottky barrier for electrons at the drain contact thinner, giving rise to an electron tunnelling current. 24 Comparison schemes of a CNT-FET in the backgate configuration: source (S), drain (D) and the backgate electrode (G); b CNT-FET in liquid configuration: passivated source (S) and drain (D) electrodes, Pt wire (pseudo reference electrode), solution containing analyte (S) A very important point to highlight with respect to the CNT-FET devices is that the CNT conducting channel exhibits some advantages with respect to conventional silicon based FETs and which makes attractive for sensing purposes.