By Hiroo Tominaga, Masakazu Tamaki
Chemical response and Reactor layout starts off with a dialogue of chemical reactions, emphasizing chemical equilibrium and price of response and proceeds to the speculation and perform of warmth and mass move, and critical issues within the layout of chemical reactors. the ultimate part of the ebook offers special case stories from the chemical overlaying the six chemical procedures: naphtha cracking, steam reforming, epoxy resin creation, hydro-treating, fluid catalytic cracking and flue fuel desulfurization.
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Extra info for Chemical Reaction and Reactor Design
The heat of reaction can be obtained from a handbook by checking 6-Hro of the raw materials and products in standard condition. Then the heat of reaction under any conditions can be calculated by obtaining the specific heat data of each substance as the function of temperature. Once one has calculated Eq. 8) for some reactions, they will be convinced that any variation in the heat of the condition affected by the temperature is not normally too significant. H. H,_O)- cpCH2)- 'hcp(02) .. -......
N e-;ou = 720 kJfmol Compressor NH3 at 1 atm. and H20 at I atm. 2 The Gibbs free energy relationship when N 2 and H 20 react until equilibrium is reached, and the extremely low pressure NH 3 produced in the equilibrium mixture is compressed up to I atm. Go is the minimum energy required to produce a product at l atm from a raw material at l atm. no reactions will take place with no sparks. A catalyst is provided to prompt reactions. However, from the aspect of equilibrium, there are many reactions which can proceed with C2H 4 and 0 2 as raw materials.
The reaction temperature for a process pursuing energy efficiency is up to about 130 oc. The reaction heat is removed together with steam when the cooling water is boiled, and this steam is usable as energy such as a heat source for distillation of products. In short, the heat of reaction is recovered as high quality heat by raising the reaction temperature. The problem with higher reaction temperatures is the increase in byproducts such as polychlorides. This example is consistent with the conclusion of thermodynamics that 'a reversible process is most efficient'.