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By Fred K. Drogula

During this paintings, Fred Drogula stories the advance of Roman provincial command utilizing the phrases and ideas of the Romans themselves as reference issues. starting within the earliest years of the republic, Drogula argues, provincial command used to be now not a uniform proposal mounted in confident legislation yet particularly a dynamic set of principles formed through conventional perform. for this reason, because the Roman kingdom grew, thoughts of authority, keep watch over over territory, and armed forces strength underwent continuous transformation. this flexibility used to be an important source for the Romans because it enabled them to reply to new army demanding situations in powerful methods. however it was once additionally a resource of clash over the jobs and definitions of strength. the increase of renowned politics within the past due republic enabled males like Pompey and Caesar to exploit their substantial impression to govern the versatile traditions of army command for his or her personal virtue. Later, Augustus used nominal provincial instructions to assuage the senate whilst he focused army and governing strength less than his personal keep watch over by means of claiming splendid rule. In doing so, he laid the foundation for the early empire's principles of command.

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7–8. 93. See Heuss (1944) 57–133. Humm (2012) 83 has also argued that the curiate law was created after the monarchy had been expelled from Rome. 94. 3). See chapter 2 for a full discussion of the role played by the comitia curiata in authorizing military command. 36 Concepts and Traditions of Military Leadership in Early Rome Thus, the authority of the state became a sine qua non in defining a man as a commander. This may have involved the creation or establishment of imperium as an essential legitimizing source of military authority, or perhaps it was merely a moment when the Roman people asserted their right to give and withhold the military authority of imperium.

Cornell (1995) 297 makes this point most clearly: “The consistent and unequivocal view of our sources [is] that Rome was never a member of a general Latin alliance. In fact, the traditional account maintains that the League was a political coalition of Latin states formed in opposition to Rome. ” 73. The manuscript reads imperatores, but Coli (1951) 163 has rightly amended this to imperatorem. 74. The repetition of the phrase aves addixerant is probably an interpolation from the line above. 75.

Hal. 2. See Momigliano (1963) 103–7, Gjerstad (1967) 270– 74, Cornell (1995) 143–50 and (2003) 86–88, Rawlings (1999) 104–6, Oakley (2004) 20, Serrati (2011) 12–13. 48 Garlan has discussed how the initiation rites by which a boy became a man in ancient societies encouraged displays of bravery and bloodletting through raids and battle: “‘Private’ wars were . . ”49 Furthermore, since victims of an attack were almost certain to seek revenge for the damage and insult they suffered (what Garlan called the right of reprisal), one attack would probably stimulate similar retaliation and so on.

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