Download Complementation: Its Meaning and Forms by Evelyn N. Ransom PDF

By Evelyn N. Ransom

This e-book provides a level within the evolution of a idea of modality meanings and varieties. It covers completely enhances. There are questions that this booklet addresses. Can one discover a small, finite set of meanings which systematically underlies the big number of meanings present in enhances? and will one make any predictions from this set of meanings concerning the number of kinds they take? the reply to either questions is sure. the writer convincingly indicates how a multiplicity of sentence meanings and kinds might be accounted for via breaking down sentence that means right into a small set of modules and howing how those modules mix to precise definite meanings and the way supplement types are with regards to them and their combos.

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INDETERMINATE ACTION I remembered whether to play chess tomorrow (32) a. DETERMINED ACTION I decided to play chess tomorrow b. INDETERMINATE ACTION I decided whether to play chess tomorrow In each pair of the sentences, the only difference in meaning is that the first is about the necessity or expectation of the complement proposition being the case, with no or few alternatives available, while the other is about the possibility of the proposition being the case or not, with equal alternatives available.

Sequence of tense can apply to all finite, and nonfinite complements having a Truth Modality, and appears to be optional under certain conditions (cf. Kiparsky and Kiparsky 1971, Costa 1972, R. Lakoff 1970, and E. Riddle 1978): 34 COMPLEMENTATION: ITS MEANINGS AND FORMS (7) a. Jo was glad that Tim is/was leaving (that the earth is/was round) b. Jo was glad for Tim to leave/have left (for the earth to be/*have been round) c. is/was round) d. Jo believed Tim to *leave/have left (the earth to be/*have been round) e.

THE INFORMATION MODALITIES 41 Because these Action complements are about someone performing an act, the expression 'perform the act' can be inserted with redundancy but with no change in meaning, while neither be true, come true, nor occur can be used: (27) a. b.  d. e. Ed forced them to perform the act of leaving Ed urged them to perform the act of leaving Ed decided to perform the act of leaving Ed was able to perform the act of leaving Ed wondered whether to perform the act of leaving (28) a.

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