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By Professor R. Ross Holloway

Constantine the nice (285-337) performed an important function in mediating among the pagan, imperial prior of town of Rome, which he conquered in 312, and its destiny as a Christian capital. during this discovered and hugely readable publication, Ross Holloway examines Constantine's extraordinary development programme in Rome. Holloway starts off by means of interpreting the Christian Church within the interval ahead of the Peace of 313, while Constantine and his co-emperor Licinius ended the persecution of the Christians. He then makes a speciality of the constitution, sort, and importance of vital monuments: the Arch of Constantine and the 2 nice Christian basilicas, St. John's within the Lateran and St. Peter's, in addition to the imperial mausoleum at Tor Pignatara. In a last bankruptcy Holloway advances a brand new interpretation of the archaeology of the Tomb of St. Peter underneath the excessive altar of St. Peter's Basilica. The tomb, he concludes, used to be now not the unique resting position of the continues to be commemorated as these of the Apostle yet used to be created simply in 251 via Pope Cornelius. Drawing at the most modern archaeological proof, he describes a cityscape that was once right now Christian and pagan, mirroring the character of its ruler.

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Fig. 4 The Arch of Constantine. South face. Sacrifice to Silvanus. Photo Faraglia, DAI Rome, Inst. Neg. 67. Copyright Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. ⁵ Otherwise the head of Hadrian was recut to represent Constantine. These reliefs are exceptional examples of the graceful sculpture of the Hadrianic times. The divine figures, Apollo especially, are examples of Roman classicism at its best. The secondary figures, especially the bearded individuals and youths, such as the almost nude boy of the departure scene, are also typically Hadrianic.

And in what seems to be a masterstroke of design, each façade carries four large reliefs in circular or almost circular frames. These are comfortably placed two over each of the side openings, with su‹cient space around them for a background of porphyry revetment. ³ The subjects of these reliefs are unusual. They are a series of imperial hunting scenes punctuated by sacrifices to sylvan divinities. ] Fig. 2 The Arch of Constantine. North face. Photo Koppermann, DAI. Inst. Neg. 2297. Copyright Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.

South face. Battle of the Mulvian Bridge. Photos Faraglia, DAI Rome, Inst. Neg. 72, 73, 74, 80. Copyright Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. ] Fig. 30 The Arch of Constantine. East face. Constantine’s entry into Rome. Photos Faraglia, DAI Rome, Inst. Neg. 62a, 63–65. Copyright Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. ] Fig. 31 The Arch of Constantine. North face. Constantine’s address in the Forum. Photos Faraglia, DAI Rome, Inst. Neg. 7–10. Copyright Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. ] Fig. 32 The Arch of Constantine.

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