By Frank Blasinger
his paintings is meant to be of sensible suggestions up to the mark engineering expertise. the writer of this e-book is Frank Blasinger it is going to assist you to pick and manage an appropriate controller for varied functions.
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Extra info for Control Engineering: A Guide for Beginners
By comparison, the PD controller is very widely used. The D component ensures a fast response to disturbances, whereas its “braking behavior” also stabilizes the control loop. The D component is not suitable for processes with pulsating variables, such as pressure and flow control. The main application for the PD controller is where tools or products are prone to damage if the setpoint is exceeded. This applies particularly to plastics processing machines. However, PD controllers, like the P controller, always have a permanent deviation, when controlling processes with self-limitation.
Thus, over a period of time, even small deviations can change the manipulating variable to such an extent that the process variable corresponds to the required setpoint. e. setpoint = process variable. The deviation is then zero and there is no further increase in manipulating variable. Unlike the P controller, the I controller does not have a permanent control deviation The step response of the I controller shows the course of the manipulating variable over time, following a step change in the control difference (see Fig.
29). Process value (x) Control deviation e = (w - x) Amplifier (Kp) Manipulating variable (y) Setpoint (w) Fig. 29: Operating principle of a P controller The control deviation signal has to be amplified, since it is too small and cannot be used directly as the manipulating variable. The gain (Kp) of a P controller must be adjustable, so that the controller can be matched to the process. The continuous output signal is directly proportional to the control deviation, and follows the same course; it is merely amplified by a certain factor.