By Stanley Monkhouse
This clincally orientated survey of cranial nerve anatomy and serve as provides the most anatomical good points of every nerve, via medical features and information of medical trying out. uncomplicated line diagrams accompany the text.
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Extra resources for Cranial nerves : functional anatomy
Branchial arch Muscles Nerves First Muscles of mastication, etc. Muscles of facial expression, etc. Stylopharyngeus Pharyngeal muscles Laryngeal muscles Mandibular Vc Second Third Fourth Sixth Facial VII Glossopharyngeal IX Pharyngeal branches of X Recurrent laryngeal of X – The five branchial arches consist of ridges of mesoderm passing ventral–dorsal on either side of the foregut at the head end of the embryo. For reasons which need not concern us, these are numbered, cranial–caudal, as I, II, III, IV and VI.
5 Upper and lower motor neuron lesions Lower motor neuron lesion: flaccidity, hyporeflexia, wasting, ipsilateral If all lower motor neurons passing to a muscle are severed, the muscle will be completely paralyzed. It will be flaccid (atonic, hypotonic), it will not respond to reflexes (arreflexic, hyporeflexic) since no impulses reach it, and it will fairly quickly atrophy as a result of denervation. The injury and the paralysis are on the same side; they are ipsilateral with respect to each other.
Nuclei. The arterial supply of the brain stem is from branches of the basilar artery. Blood supply Blood vessels supplying the motor pathways are very important. A vascular lesion affecting any part of the pathway will have devastating effects. This is particularly so in the internal capsule since the same arteries supply not only motor but also neighbouring sensory pathways. A haemorrhage or an occlusion of the striate arteries is likely to affect a large area of the body leading to contralateral sensory and motor signs.