Download Cross-Cultural Research Methods by Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember PDF

By Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember

With no ethnography, cross-cultural comparability wouldn't be attainable. yet with out cross-cultural comparability, we'd understand not anything of what should be common or variable throughout human cultures, or why version exists.

Cross-Cultural examine equipment is an introductory educating device that exhibits scholars and strength researchers the way to describe, evaluate, and learn styles that take place in several cultures, that's, tips on how to shape and try anthropological, sociological, mental, clinical, or political hypotheses approximately cultural version.

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One researcher might want to measure the average monetary equivalent of goods and services produced by the average adult in a day. But this measure would be meaningless in relatively noncommercial societies because much of production is not for sale; adults mostly produce food and other things for direct use by themselves and their families. A more widely applicable measure of productivity would reflect noncommercial as well as commercial production. Indeed, not all economic output can be measured in monetary terms, even in a society with buying and selling.

Ember (1975) finds that the relationship between a male-dominated division of labor and patrilocal residence did hold for hunter-gatherers; hence the frequent occurrence of hunter-gatherers in North America (cf. ) may account for the statistically significant relationship between a male-dominant division of labor and patrilocal residence in North America. Fred Eggan (1954) advocates small-scale regional comparisons, which he calls “controlled comparisons,” because he thought they would make it easier to rule out the possible effects of similarity in history, geography, and language.

Examples are: Is there a relationship between type of marriage and level of fertility? Is more war associated with more socialization for aggression in children? Do huntergatherers share food more often than food producers? Are males more aggressive than females? Question types 2 through 4 are relational questions. That is, they ask how traits are related to other traits. 1 diagrams the different types of relational questions. Causality is diagrammed with an arrow. 1. Types of relational questions the direction of causality.

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