By Nancy Furstinger
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Here the crankthrows lie on opposite sides of the crankshaft rotational axis, so that the symmetrical distribution of their masses allows static balance to be achieved without the addition of counterbalance weights. As a result, however, of each piston connecting to an individual crankthrow, the corresponding cylinders cannot be made truly coaxial. It is the presence of this offset distance between the nearly opposite cylinders which causes the otherwise statically balanced crankthrows to introduce a rocking movement or unbalanced couple on the rotating crankshaft, arising from the centrifugal forces generated.
The concept of the slipper torsional vibration damper is generally credited to Dr F. W. Lanchester, who developed such a device for the Daimler Company just before World War I, although Henry Royce arrived at 38 LIGHT AND HEAVY VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY Compression^ spr tng Crankshaft _ pulley loading and hence slipping torque has been predetermined. 71 Types and action of crankshaft torsional vibration damper: (a) slipper (b) bonded rubber (c) unbonded rubber (d) damping (e) detuning very much the same solution to the problem also during this period.
In the case of motor vehicle crankshafts produced in large quantities, the actual shaping is performed by drop-hammer forging in closed dies. The latter are upper and lower blocks of metal in each of which an impression has been formed of the crankshaft. A cast crankshaft is, in contrast, one that is manufactured by a process in which the metal in a molten state is poured into a mould and allowed to solidify. Motor vehicle crankshafts are not, however, produced in conventional sand moulds, but are cast vertically by the shell moulding process.