By Jennifer Erickson
The United Nations's groundbreaking palms exchange Treaty (ATT), which went into impact in 2014, units legally binding criteria to manage worldwide hands exports and displays the becoming matters towards the numerous position that small and significant traditional fingers play in perpetuating human rights violations, clash, and societal instability around the globe. many nations that after staunchly antagonistic shared export controls and their perceived risk to political and financial autonomy are actually starting to include quite a few agreements, equivalent to the ATT and the ecu Code of behavior.
Jennifer L. Erickson explores the explanations best arms-exporting democracies have set aside earlier sovereignty, defense, and monetary concerns in want of humanitarian palms move controls, and he or she follows the early results of this about-face on export perform. She starts off with a short background of failed hands export keep watch over projects after which tracks hands move developments through the years. Pinpointing the normative shifts within the Nineties that placed humanitarian hands keep an eye on at the desk, she finds that those states devoted to those regulations out of outrage for his or her overseas reputations. She additionally highlights how palms exchange scandals threaten family reputations and therefore aid increase compliance. utilizing statistical info and interviews carried out in France, Germany, Belgium, the uk, and the USA, Erickson demanding situations latest IR theories of country habit whereas offering perception into the function of popularity as a social mechanism and the significance of presidency transparency and responsibility in producing compliance with new norms and rules.
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Additional resources for Dangerous trade : arms exports, human rights, and international reputation
Policy implementation, however, is carried out by multiple government agencies and leaves the most politically sensitive cases to top decision makers more responsive to domestic audiences. Yet domestic constituencies are typically uninterested in arms transfers, a complex issue followed only by a small set of specialists, NGOs, and the defense industry. For politicians, arms export controls bring few electoral benefits and restricting defense markets has been seen—rightly or wrongly—as costly to employment and national security.
In a new normative environment linking arms transfers to human rights, states face social pressures at the international level to commit to responsible arms transfer controls. As a group, democracies are the most likely to respond to these pressures: their domestic obligations to the rule of law and other democratic values can translate to international politics (Doyle 1986; Simmons 1998; Slaughter 1995). In addition, democracies are subject to greater internal and external pressure to conform to international norms related to peace, human rights, and international law (Burley 1992; Simmons 1998).
Even as states have adopted policies in line with new norms, norm internalization has not caught up with state practice, and compliance is mixed at best. But if norm adoption is instrumental, as it appears to be, what do states hope to get out of it? Without the promise of material gain, why expend time and resources on multilateral initiatives intended to impose costly restrictions on decision making and risk domestic legal challenges and hypocrisy costs if compliance is weak? This chapter proposes a theory of state behavior that highlights the importance of social reputation to explain states’ commitment to and varied compliance with “responsible” arms export norms.