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3. I n the combined cycle an increase in the portion of heat added a t V constant (an increase in h) and a decrease in the portion of heat added a t p constant (a decrease in p) raise the values of the thermal efficieney and mean pressure of the cycle. 4. The combined cycle is advisable to be used a t considerable compression ratios (in excess of 12) and a t as high a pressure increase as practicable. This cycle is utilized in all high-speed automobile and tractor unsupercharged diesel engines.
Referring to the figure, t'he initial temperature of the cycle affects, but little, the value of thermal efficiency, as the temperature at the end of expansion varies almost in proportion to changes in the initial temperature, the other things being equal. I n addition to the compression ratio, a basic factor having an effect on q t is the excess air factor a. An increase in the thermal efficiency with leaning of the mixture is accounted for by a relative decrease in the fuel content in the combustible mixture and, thus, a relative decrease in the amount of combustion products which possess a higher specific heat.
2 . 7 ~ )are associated with Q; = 55 MJlkmole, that is the heat transferred to a t V constant, ca. 2. 37 THEORETICAL CYCLES OF PISTON ENGINES Fig. 8. 2 = const, p =. const-pressure cycle and = 25 MJ/kmole, that is the heat added at p constant (Fig. 7b). 5Q, = 40 MJ/kmole, then the curves illustrat,ed in Fig. 5. 1), we may come to a conclusion that under similar initial conditions and with equal amounts of heat added, the thermal efficiency and mean pressure of the cycle with heat added a t constant V and p are always less than the corresponding l l t and p t of the cycle with heat added at a constant volume and are always greater than the associated values of qt and p , of the cycle with heat added a t a constant pressure.