Download Direct and Indirect Characteristic X-Rays Their Ratio as a by Webster D. L. PDF

By Webster D. L.

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Normal potential. becomes equal to E . When This is = ' 1, the potential of the system the normal potential which has a definite have: we value for each system. Thus E = ' -J Fe 3+ ! 0-78 4- 0-06 log I volt the value of the potential for Fe 3 + = Fe 2 + |. Prediction of reactions. We have seen that the value of the oxidation-reduction potential of a solution makes it possible to predict reactions when a cell is formed or when the solutions are mixed. Thus eerie salts oxidize ferrous salts, for we have: 0-78 volt is j E !

Ferric ions can be reduced to ferrous ions, and ferrous oxidized to ferric. Oxidation thus corresponds to an increase and reduction to a decrease in the oxidation number. Ferrous iron, in which iron has the oxidation number II+, is oxidized to the ferric state, in which its oxidation number Ferrous ferric is III+. Stannous salts are oxidized to stannic ones: Ferrocyariides are oxidized to ferricyanides: Fe(CN) 6 4 ~ - e -> Fe(CN) 6 3 ~ The passage of metals into solution or their precipitation are oxidationreduction phenomena.

Is applicable. 10 8 Vl which a is the mean radius of the ion under consideration in centi metres. It is generally to be found in tables of constants. I0 8 Vl w ith the ions. the ionic strength increases, / passes through a minimum and then increases with I. It can subsequently become greater than 1. In practice as soon as the ionic strength becomes sufficient to require serious corrections, formula (1) ceases to be applicable, and the activity coefficients can no longer be calculated a priori. -ion per litre.

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