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By A. J. Van Essen (auth.)

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Teachers were put on an hourly rate and had to teach 30 periods a week to classes of at least 30 pupils. To obtain one's maximum salary one had to wait twenty years. 2 In its fight for a satisfactory pension scheme, the teachers' union was more successful. But in spite of all that had been achieved, a union official had to admit in 1917: Of course, quite a few wishes still remain to be fulfilled. Quite a few imprdvements are still req uired before the teacher's old-age wants (or those of any other civil servant for that matter) are adequately provided for, or before the teacher can rest 30 E.

It was not only the farmhands who suffered under the crisis, however. For over and above the agricultural depression there was a general economic recession, which also made a considerable number of industrial workers redundant, albeit that in the period discussed there was an overall increase in the number of people employed in industry. It has been shown that in the years in which the economic crisis reached an all-time low - roughly in the mid-eighties - the working classes were worst hit by the unemployment.

The Roman Catholics keenly resented being called Rooms by their fellow-citizens. 8 Owing to their allegiance to the Pope, the Dutch Roman Catholics were often regarded with great distrust by their Protestant compatriots. During Kruisinga's youth the almost universally held belief was that, because ofthis 10yaIty, Catholics ought to be excluded from high public offices. 9 In this connexion mention may be made of the wrangles over the appointment of a successor to Jan te Winkel,lo Professor of Dutch in the University of Amsterdam, who retired in 1919.

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