By Stuart Kirby (auth.)
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2 billion per year. A further effect has been to draw resources into investigation, intelligence and other specialist functions, away from the public: the number of sworn officers working in these areas increased by 3000 over the previous four years, while the number working in the community declined by 1,400. 38 Effective Policing? They go on to explain that this drift towards specialization, combined with other working practices, such as the desire of operational officers to work variable shifts (working longer, but fewer days) led to a lack of visibility, with some officers only working 171 days of the year.
When coupled with a particular context, these issues can build a chain of events, which either assists or hinders the successful implementation of police actions. The process can be summarized as follows: Stage 1 (external influences) dictates the external operating environment, which the police are relatively powerless to change, as follows: • The advent of late modernity has affected the macro environment, which encompasses consumerism, increased mobility and the management of risk. These and other factors create both opportunities and challenges for the police, which they need to adapt to with increased speed and flexibility.
Indeed Thatcher became ‘There Are Police and There Are Police’ 19 so concerned about police leadership that she talked of bringing direct entrants to the police from other industries (Savage, 2007; Golding & Savage, 2008), a view that persists and is being actively pursued in many quarters today. In summary, the complexity of the external and internal environment requires excellent police leadership to deliver effective policing. However, as with all human behaviour, the quality of police leadership appears varied.