By Viktor S. Vavilov
The results of electromagnetic radiation and high-energy par ticles on semiconductors will be divided into major approaches: (a) the excitation of electrons (the unique case is inner ioniza tion, i. e. , the iteration of extra cost carriers); and(b) dis turbance of the periodic constitution of the crystal, i. e. , the forma tion of "structural radiation defects. " evidently, investigations of the consequences of radiation on semiconductors can't be thought of in isolation. therefore, for instance, the problern of "radiation de fects" is a part of the generalproblern of crystal lattice defects and the impression of such defects at the approaches taking place in semi conductors. an identical is right of photoelectric and related phe nomena the place the motion of the radiation is barely the beginning of a posh chain of nonequilibrium electronprocesses. however, rather from the perspective of the experimental physicist, the radiation results mentioned within the current booklet have inter esting positive factors: different types of radiation may possibly produce an analogous resul t (for instance, ionization through photons and by way of charged debris) or one form of radiation could produce numerous results (ionization and radiation -defect formation). the purpose of the writer used to be to contemplate the commonest prob lems. the topics mentioned fluctuate generally from each other within the quantity to which they've been investigated.
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Extra info for Effects of Radiation on Semiconductors
We may assume that deeper exciton states exist near the strong absorptionband edgewhich is related to vertical transitions. However, the presence of quite intense absorption due to nonvertical transitions with phonon participation makes experimental study of deep exciton states very difficult. 24 ABSORPTION OF LIGHT BY SEMICONDUCTORS [Ch. I Absorption of Light Involving § 5. the Photoionization or Excitation of Impurities and Structural Defects A. Centers with Shallow Energy Levels From measurements of the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and Hall e.
If the absorbed radiation generates electron and hole pairs, (2. 8) 46 PHOTOIONIZATION AND PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY [Ch. II where tn and tp are, respectively, the transit times for electrons and holes. Each of these times is inversely proportional to the carrier mobility: (2. 10) We must remernher that in this case a carrier which has reached an electrode is replaced by a carrier of the same type injected from the opposite electrode. The expression for ~J can also be obtained directly from Eq. (2. 5) by multiplying it by the field intensity.
W. ,! 2 A,ll Fig. 13. Electro-optical effect in silicon . ).. F::l 0,005 11· to the additional absorption, with respect to the field $ did not exceed 2 x l0- 8 sec. C. Effect of a Magnetic Field on the Fundamental Absorption Band Measurements of the absorption in crystals of germanium, InSb,andlnAs,placedina strong magneticfield, showed that a welldefined system of periodically distributed absorption maxima ap- [Ch. 8? 1 Photon energy, eV Fig. 14. Influence of a magnetic field on the optical absorption in the fundamental band (Landau levels).