Download Ethiopia A Country Study by Thomas P. Ofcansky, Laverle Berry PDF

By Thomas P. Ofcansky, Laverle Berry

After assuming energy in 1974, the army regime launched into a application to enhance the of peasants, yet famine and starvation persevered regardless of this attempt, which used to be supplemented by means of enormous overseas tips. furthermore, the escalation of the army crusade opposed to the rebel activities in Eritrea, Tigray, and the Ogaden pressured hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians to escape into neighboring nations.

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Each side sought to claim as many slaves and as much booty as possible, but neither side attempted to bring the other firmly under its rule. By the second decade of the sixteenth century, however, a young soldier in the Adali army, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al Ghazi, had begun to acquire a strong following by virtue of his military successes and in time became the de facto leader of Adal. Concurrently, he acquired the status of a religious leader. Ahmad, who came to be called Grañ (the “Lefthanded") by his Christian enemies, rallied the ethnically diverse Muslims, including many Afar and Somali, in a jihad intended to break Christian power.

Thereafter, the Oromo played a major role in the internal dynamics of Ethiopia, both assimilating and being assimilated as they were slowly incorporated into the Christian kingdom. In the south, the Sidama fiercely resisted the Oromo, but, as in the central and northern highlands, they were compelled to yield at least some territory. In the east, the Oromo swept up to and even beyond Harer, dealing a devastating blow to what remained of Adal and contributing in a major way to its decline. Contact with European Christendom Egyptian Muslims had destroyed the neighboring Nile River valley's Christian states in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

This victory brought Ethiopia new prestige as well as general recognition of its sovereign status by the European powers. Besides confirming the annulment of the Treaty of Wuchale, the peace agreement ending the conflict also entailed Italian recognition of Ethiopian independence; in return, Menelik permitted the Italians to retain their colony of Eritrea. In addition to attempts on the part of Britain, France, and Italy to gain influence within the empire, Menelik was troubled by intrigues originating in Russia, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.

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