Download Europe on Trial: The Story of Collaboration, Resistance, and by Istvan Deak, Norman M. Naimark PDF

By Istvan Deak, Norman M. Naimark

In Europe on Trial, acclaimed historian István Deák explores the historical past of collaboration, retribution, and resistance in the course of international conflict II. those 3 subject matters are tested throughout the studies of individuals and nations less than German career, in addition to Soviet, Italian, and different army rule. these lower than international rule confronted innumerable ethical and moral dilemmas, together with the query of no matter if to cooperate with their occupiers, attempt to continue to exist the battle with none political involvement, or probability their lives by means of changing into resisters. Many selected all 3, counting on wartime stipulations. Following the brutal warfare, the writer discusses the purges of actual or alleged struggle criminals and collaborators, via a number of acts of violence, deportations, and judicial lawsuits on the Nuremberg foreign army Tribunal in addition to in hundreds of thousands of neighborhood courts. Europe on Trial is helping us to appreciate the numerous ethical outcomes either in the course of and instantly following international battle II.

Foreword via Norman M. Naimark

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Extra info for Europe on Trial: The Story of Collaboration, Resistance, and Retribution during World War II

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Following World War II, the Paris peace treaties and the UN Charter left the protection of minorities to the sovereign governments, with the inevitable result of further persecution and expulsions until the much-longed-for goal of ethnic uniformity or purity was almost completely achieved. 24 Eu rope on T r i a l The post–World War I international community engaged in several new attempts to regulate warfare and to ease the life of civilians in occupied territories as well as that of prisoners of war and especially of their wounded.

The dreaded Cossacks, an elite force usually on horseback within the Russian army, forced hundreds of thousands of Jews in Galicia to flee toward Budapest and Vienna; other Jews were killed and their houses looted. In view of such mistreatment, it is not surprising that many Eastern European Jews received the German- and Austro-Hungarian troops as their saviors with whom, among other things, they could communicate in German or in a mixture of Yiddish and German. When the Russians reconquered some territory, as they occasionally did during the war, they persecuted the “hostile” Jewish population with increased ferocity, despite the fact that, meanwhile, hundreds of thousands of Jews had been drafted into the Russian ranks.

And what to think of the Hungarian coal miners, many of whom belonged to their country’s National Socialist Party, who went on strike for better wages in October 1940 against the Jewish mine owners? By this act, the miners indirectly prevented some Hungarian heavy industrial plants, equally owned by Jews, from making weapons for the Germans. The strike, directed by Hungarian Nazi leaders, was finally crushed by the Hungarian army units, at the request of the German government. To be sure, timing played a crucial role in all this: changes at the battlefront made resisters out of collaborators, although many performed both functions simultaneously.

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