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By Fred D'Agostino

Unfastened Public cause examines the assumption of public justification, stressing its value but additionally wondering the coherence of the idea that itself. even if public justification is hired within the paintings of theorists resembling John Rawls, Jeremy Waldron, Thomas Nagel, and others, it has acquired little cognizance by itself as a philosophical proposal. during this publication Fred D'Agostino exhibits that the idea that consists of varied values, pursuits, and notions of the great, and that no score of those is feasible. The inspiration of public justification itself is hence proven to be contestable. In demonstrating this, D'Agostino undermines many present political theories that depend upon this idea. Having damaged down the rules of public justification, D'Agostino then bargains another version of ways a doable consensus on its which means should be reached during the interactions of a neighborhood of interpreters or delegates at a constitutional conference.

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52. Cf. the following. Raz, "Facing Diversity," p. " Rawls, "The Idea of an Overlapping Consensus," p. 9: "Since different premises may lead to the same conclusions, we simply suppose that the essential elements of the political conception ... " Rawls, "Justice as Fairness," p. " Nagel, Equality and Partiality, p. 38: "Legitimacy is the result of a convergence from different perspectives on a single arrangement. . " Dryzek, Discursive Democracy, pp. 16-17: "[C]onsensus on what is desirable .. " 53.

67 In each case, we have a contrast between what A and B would accept based on their actual beliefs and desires, and what they could accept if their beliefs and desires were filtered or supplemented in some way — for example, by the requirements of Rationality and Reasonableness. Perhaps further refinement is called for of what may be a too-crude distinction between direct and indirect modes. Certainly, Nagel's requirement for indirect justification is not very substantive. It is more nearly procedural than the requirements that others seem to have had in mind.

Political Liberalism, pp. 229-30. 44. Political Liberalism, p. 227. 45. "Justice and the Aims of Political Philosophy," p. 779. 46. Political Liberalism, p. 230. 47. Political Liberalism, p. 166. 48. Cf. Political Liberalism, ch. 4, sec. 2. 49. Of course, restriction to such a setting might not be necessary and is not necessary if certain very implausible claims are true. These claims might be called 'thick essentialism' and 'Socratism'. (On 'Socratism', cf. Rorty, Objectivity, Relativism, and Truth, p.

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