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By Ayman Shihadeh

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These works, however, are very di#erent from classical Ash‘arı¯ works, including his early Isha¯ra. Consider the Muh * as**sal. , the contradiction in al-Ra¯zı¯’s views on pleasure (Maba¯h * ith, 1, 388–9; 2, 427), underlined by S * adr al-Dı¯n al-Shı¯ra¯zı¯ (Al-H * ikma al-muta‘a¯liya, 9 vols. [Beirut, 1990] vol. 4, pp. 119–20). g. providence, ethical value, and proof of prophecy (al-Ra¯zı¯, Al-Mulakhkhas* fı¯ al-h * ikma wa-al-mant*iq, Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Hunt 329, fols. 320b–323a; 351a).

389. The appearance of sections on physics in some later kala¯m works is due to the influence of more than one of al-Ra¯zı¯’s works on some later Asha¯‘ira. The Mawa¯qif of al-Izjı¯ is heavily influenced by the Maba¯h * ith, Niha¯yat al-‘uqu¯l, the Muh * as**sal, the Arba‘ı¯n, and others, including, in some places, the Mat*a¯lib. This later synthesis between al-Ra¯zı¯’s own works, including kala¯m and falsafı¯ ones, regardless of their chronology, lead to the introduction of physics into kala¯m, referred to by Ibn Khaldu¯n.

FROM AL-GHAZA z LIz TO AL-RA z ZIz 177 at knowing God and that are considered by Ibn Sı¯na¯ as essential for human perfection, including most of physics. ’’ The second important feature of this notion of human perfection, as constituted of knowing God alone, rather than the universe and its parts, is that it demonstrates an inclination to Sufism. This marks a significant transition in al-Ra¯zı¯’s thought; for his earlier theological works do not show Sufi influence, and in fact contain criticism of some Sufi notions.

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