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By Robert Mackintosh

Robert waterproof coat (1858-1933), a professor on the Congregationalist Lancashire autonomous collage, strains the impact of biology and evolutionism at the research of human ethics and society through the moment 1/2 the 19th century during this 1899 booklet. He starts with Comte's founding of sociology, and maintains with the renewed entice biology for the certainty of human affairs present in the paintings of Darwin, Spencer and their circle. He then seems at Benjamin Kidd's Social Evolution, released in 1894 (and additionally reissued during this series). Fifty years after Comte, Kidd argued that sociology required extra grounding through a brand new recourse to biology. waterproof coat supported Kidd's view. If organic clues are to find the money for tips for human behavior, waterproof coat contended, they have to be supplemented by way of a clearer ethical and spiritual imaginative and prescient, and in philosophy via a few scheme of metaphysical evolutionism. His paintings marks a transition from Darwinism to a brand new Hegelianism.

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A It is perhaps the same position in different words when Mr. Mackenzie tells us that his doctrine of an organism (as applied to the social organism) is a metaphysical category. The perfect realisation of unity in difference, the whole in all the parts, each for all, and 1 With an interesting and characteristic modification, Professor Baldwin of Princeton affirms that Psychology gives us the true clue to the nature of society. 28 COMTE TO BENJAMIN KIDD PART I all for each, is only hinted in natural organisms, but is achieved in the life of reason and of goodness.

Now, first, we must remark that Comte does not absolutely shut the door against faith. While he regards belief in a God as the second-last outworn raiment of human thought, he declines with some indignation to be called an atheist. God, say his disciples, may or may not exist; the question lies beyond the competency of human reason to settle. So, too, the doctrine of a soul separate from the body is assigned by Comte to the last outworn phase of thought—the metaphysical. Yet, if you call Comte a materialist, his facile indignation once more overflows.

The name sociology—Comte's own coinage—is a hybrid term, partly Latin and partly Greek. Social statics, again, is used in a different sense from that of Mr. Herbert Spencer's early treatise. With Spencer, social statics refers to a future Utopian period, when egoism and altruism are perfectly balanced; a millennial age, when "that great disturbance of human nature, which the churches call sin," has been left behind. It therefore corresponds to the " absolute ethics " or " ethics for the straight man" of Mr.

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