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By Yaron Matras, Jeanette Sakel

The booklet comprises 30 descriptive chapters facing a particular language touch state of affairs. The chapters stick with a uniform corporation layout, being the narrative model of a typical entire questionnaire formerly allotted to all authors. The questionnaire goals systematically the potential of touch effect / grammatical borrowing in a whole variety of different types. The uniform constitution allows a comparability one of the chapters and the languages lined. The advent describes the setup of the questionnaire and the technique of the method, in addition to a survey of the problems of sampling involved linguistics. evaluative chapters, each one authored through one of many co-editors, attracts common conclusions from the quantity as an entire (one relating to borrowed grammatical different types and significant hierarchies, the opposite on the subject of the distribution of subject and development replication).

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These are K’abeena, Hup, Macedonian Turkish and Khuzistani Arabic, most of which are also part of well-established linguistic areas. K’abeena is discussed for its participation in the Gurage linguistic area (cf. Crass, this volume) and exhibits areal patterns of varying sources. Not surprisingly, most of the contact phenomena found in K’abeena are PATloans. K’abeena has a number of MAT-loans as well, part from lexical elements, it has borrowed a few markers of temporal and causal clauses, discourse markers and interjections.

Nau, Nicole 1995 Möglichkeiten und Mechanismen kontaktbewegten Sprachwandels – unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Finnischen. Munich: Lincom. Ross, Malcolm D. 1988 Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian Languages of Western Melanesia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. Sakel, Jeanette, Yaron Matras 2004 Database of Convergence and Borrowing. Manchester: University of Manchester. 2007 Language contact between Spanish and Mosetén: A study of grammatical integration. International Journal of Bilingualism 11 (1): 2553.

De Rooij (this volume) shows that many of the Swahili noun class markers correspond in form and function to those of the substrate languages. The differences – in particular the three markers in question – were borrowed to assimilate Katanga Swahili’s system of noun classification to that of the substrate languages. We are therefore not dealing with a mere MAT-loan of three markers in isolation, but with a general adjustment of two systems that are already largely identical. In the same way we find MAT-loans from current substrate languages in Indonesian.

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