By Steven Tracy, M. Steven Oberste, Kristen M. Drescher
Our wisdom of the crowd B coxsackieviruses has stepped forward dramatically some time past 60 years. probably the most contemporary advances comprise the identity of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor, the dissection of genetic components associated with virulence/attenuation, exam of the impression of recombination in virus evolution and variety, and research of the position of viral proteins in regulating host mobile macromolecule synthesis and trafficking. the 1st version of this paintings, released in 1997, defined the molecular biology of coxsackie B viruses, in addition to medical, epidemiological, and immunological points of crew B coxsackievirus affliction. a lot has been finished long ago ten years, together with selection of the crystal constitution of a virus-receptor complicated, major advances in realizing the molecular information of virus-host interplay in the cellphone, and deeper insights into the systemic results of virus an infection and the host reaction. This moment version summarizes the present nation of information in staff B coxsackievirus genomics and replication, receptor constitution and serve as, host mobilephone interactions, the host immune reaction and immunopathology, viral virulence and pathogenesis, and the function of this crucial staff of viruses in acute and protracted sickness in humans.
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Restrictions of different intensity may also contribute to differences in recombination frequency of closely related enterovirus groups. A survey of human enteroviruses A and B within a limited time period and in the same geographical region indicated much more frequent recombination events for species B than for species A (Simmonds and Welch 2006). The study used phylogenetic compatibility matrices on sequence alignments to define the sites of favored recombination; the latter were located throughout the nonstructural protein-coding regions examined.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:6272-6276 Kew O, Morris-Glasgow V, Landaverde M, Burns C, Shaw J, Garib Z, Andre J, Blackman E, Freeman CJ, Jorba J, Sutter R, Tambini G, Venczel L, Pedreira C, Laender F, Shimizu H, Yoneyama T, Miyamura T, van Der Avoort H, Oberste MS, Kilpatrick D, Cochi S, Pallansch M, de Quadros C (2002) Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola associated with circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus. Science 296:356-359 Kim KS, Tracy S, Tapprich W, Bailey J, Lee CK, Kim K, Barry WH, Chapman NM (2005) 5¢Terminal deletions occur in coxsackievirus B3 during replication in murine hearts and cardiac myocyte cultures and correlate with encapsidation of negative-strand viral RNA.
2003). A precedent involving enteroviruses was the observation of the dynamics of gain and loss of reactive epitopes among clinical isolates of coxsackievirus B4 (Prabhakar et al. 1982, 1985). There is an increasing number of data banks for virus nucleotide and protein sequences (reviewed in Domingo et al. 2006, 2007). It has been suggested that a second generation of data banks, including sequences of mutant spectra, could be contemplated, to try to incorporate to the everyday tasks of virologists at least part of the additional information converged by mutant spectra and their complexity (Domingo et al.