By J. Randall Flanagan, Alan W. Wing, Patrick Haggard
Now to be had in paperback, Hand and mind is a entire review of the hand's sensorimotor regulate. It discusses mediating variables in conception and comprehension, the coordination of muscle tissues with the principal frightened process, the character of circulate regulate and hand positioning, hand-arm coordination in attaining and greedy, and the sensory functionality of the hand. This e-book takes a wide interdisciplinary standpoint at the regulate of hand hobbies that comes with neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, psychology and neuropsychology, and biomechanics. The authors, who've all made major medical contributions of their personal correct, have sought to introduce their selected subject matters in a way that the reader is ready to keep on with with no sacrificing precise and up to date assurance of the most important advancements. Key positive factors* makes use of an interdisciplinary process together with behavioral and neurophysiological information* Describes a number of experimental methodologies* Treats neural computations valuable for the keep watch over of move* Covers implications of biomechanics for keep watch over, sensory mechanisms, and perceptual processing (haptics)* comprises manipulative hand functionality in addition to attaining* Overviews each one workforce of chapters utilizing hyperlink sections* comprises an built-in index and a glossaryThe 5 sections cover:* Mediating variables in conception and prehension* The coordination of muscle tissue with the important frightened process* the character of stream keep an eye on and hand positioning* Hand-arm coordination in attaining and greedy* The sensory functionality of the hand
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Extra info for Hand and Brain: The Neurophysiology and Psychology of Hand Movements (1998)
Sherrington, in Integrative Action of the Nervous System (1947), assumed that muscle synergies are laid down in the spinal cord (Beevor, 1904), the reflex arc being at the basis of synergic muscle grouping. In his terms: "The reflex-arc is the unit mechanism of the nervous system when that system is regarded in its integrative functions . . Coordination, therefore, is in part Hand and Brain Copyright 9 1996 by Academic Press, Inc. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. 37 38 Hepp-Reymond, Huesler, and Maier the compounding of reflexes" (p.
In this example, AdP and 1DI receive a common input (branching axon), while AbPB is individually innervated. (B) Synchronous activation of AdP and 1DI in the time domain is reflected as a peak in the cross-correlation function; coactivation of the two muscles in the amplitude domain is shown by the covariation of the EMG amplitudes in the scattergram (correlation coefficient r is statistically significant). (C) In this hypothetical example, AbPB and 1DI are not correlated, either in the time or in the amplitude domain.
Go time Correlation (amplitudedomain) a. 1 9 9 "~ "13 Oo / '. " "" ",~ ~ . " . 9 1DI vs AbPB "" '~" : LLI """ 0 " " r > 05 0 1 EMG 1 DI ~o ....... "~o ..... 1DI time 9 , 9 ". . 9 . 9. . 9 ~ 1 ----'~' ..... 9 ,P .. + .. - o ~176 .. AdP .. ~ 9 r--= 0 AbPB I EMG 1 DI FIGURE 4 Synopsis of theoretical issues and analytical approaches. (A) Example of three hand muscles active in precision grip and their respective innervation (AbPB, abductor pollicis brevis; AdP, adductor pollicis; 1DI, first dorsal interosseus).