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By Herbert Marcuse

This used to be Herbert Marcuse's first ebook on Hegel, written within the early Thirties while he used to be less than the powerful impact of Martin Heidegger. It presents a nonetheless unequaled Heideggerian interpreting of Hegel's notion that seeks the defining features of "historicity" - what it capability to claim ancient occasion occurs. those principles have been foundational for Marcuse; they exhibit a convention referred to as "phenomenological Marxism," in this case represented through Jean-Paul Sartre and Maurice Merleau-Ponty and by means of a few participants of the Praxis workforce in Yugoslavia. The booklet is in components. the 1st analyzes Hegel's good judgment that allows you to establish its ontological complex or idea of being; by way of targeting Hegel's Early Theological Writings and the Phenomenology of Spirit, the second one half argues that the concept that of existence in its historicity used to be actually the unique beginning of Hegelian ontology. in actual fact this can be a "purer" type of philosophizing than Marcuse was once to pursue after he joined the Institut für Sozialforschung, stumbled on Freud, and distanced himself from Heidegger's philosophy. yet there's a certain connection among his research of historicity during this very important early paintings and his later makes an attempt to appreciate the underlying dynamic of latest heritage and society in such books as One-Dimensional guy and Eros and Civilization . Hegel's Ontology and the speculation of Historicity is integrated within the sequence reviews in modern German Social concept, edited by means of Thomas McCarthy,

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But the problem then becomes how to character­ ise this universally presupposed and realised 'category', and what kind of relation social history (or historiography) might bear to it. The same am- s. Collins 68 biguity found in Durkheim and Mauss is here reproduced: if the category is necessary and universal, and so in a sense a priori, then in just this sense it cannot have a history. Of course particular conceptual 'realisa­ tions' of the category must have a social history, and I agree wholeheart­ edly with Allen when he says that in this sense philosophers (I would add, particularly English-language linguistic analysts) often display 'the characteristic error of non-sociologists who, unaware of the history and pre-history of the notions with which they operate, naively regard them as natural'.

69 The other part or factor of man is 'the soul'; that is, that part of consciousness which is both moral sense or con­ science (Ia conscience morale), and at the same time conceptual aware­ ness. 'The soul' is that which enables individuals (through the public, social medium of language) to rise above their mean and petty individual appetites to the higher life which is social and moral. It is la conscience collective. This movement from individual to social is also a move from animal to human; each individual consciousness does - or at least should recognise that in rising to the level of humanity and human personality it is rising to the level of the social.

But at the same time, it is par­ ticularity, different from others, individual personality. The point is that the particular characteristics of the 'I' are not merely given, but belong to a being who is also capable of abstracting from them and making them over, who is free in the sense of having an identity which is beyond any of them. Hence these characteristics can be seen as affirmed by this universal self-identity. 49 In Hegel's own terms, Concept is not merely soul [Seele] but free subjective Concept that is for itself and therefore possesses personality [die Personlichkeit] - the practi­ cal, objective Concept determined in and for itself which, as Person, is impenetrable atomic subjectivity [der, als Person, undurchdringliche atome Sub;ektivitat ist] but which, none the less, is not exclusive Individuality [Einzelnheit] but universality and cognition .

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