By Hans-Jürgen Bandelt, Martin Richards, Vincent Macaulay
Mitochondrial DNA is without doubt one of the such a lot heavily explored genetic structures, since it can let us know quite a bit concerning the human previous. This e-book takes a different viewpoint, providing the disparate strands that has to be tied jointly to take advantage of the program. From molecular biology to anthropology, information to historic DNA, this primary quantity of 3 provides a entire worldwide photo and a severe appraisal of human mitochondrial DNA edition.
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Extra info for Human Mitochondrial DNA and the Evolution of Homo sapiens (Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology, 18)
After visual inspection of the alignment, we retained 20 numts bearing some reasonable similarity with that proﬁle within that segment (percentage identity between 67 and 85). These numts then all include a longer than 220-bp stretch at which they are quite similar to each other and paralogous to the mtDNA fragment 9912– 10139. In particular, with respect to this alignment, 15 of them bear A at 10068 and 10070 as well as C at 10076 that also occur in the hotspot spectrum (Fig. 3 in Khraphko et al.
We now have a better understanding of the mechanism behind the transmission of mtDNA heteroplasmy and the ﬁxation of new mutations within pedigrees, and by studying the factors that modulate heteroplasmy we may gain more insight into additional nuclear genetic factors that interact with the mitochondrial genome and thereby inﬂuence the way that mtDNA evolves within populations. There is emerging evidence from a number of species that nuclear and mitochondrial genes coevolve, possibly through mechanisms that do not directly involve the respiratory chain (Blier et al.
This rather ﬂexible general-purpose argument warning that, because of selection, one could never know what happens with the ‘single locus’ mtDNA lingers to the present day whenever one wants to downplay the role of mtDNA in elucidating phylogenetic relationships. Willerslev and Cooper (2005) have reminded the reader of further spectacular claims of DNA sequences surviving for millions of years which either turned out to have originated from human or microbial contamination or were not replicable by independent experiments.