By Silvina A. Montrul
Age results have performed a very widespread position in a few theoretical views on moment language acquisition. This ebook takes a completely new viewpoint in this factor by way of re-examining those theories in gentle of the life of it seems that related non-native results in grownup history audio system who, in contrast to grownup moment language inexperienced persons, received or extra languages in formative years. regardless of having been uncovered to their kinfolk language early in lifestyles, lots of those audio system by no means totally gather, or later lose, facets in their first language someday in adolescence. The ebook examines the structural features of "incomplete" grammatical states and highlights how age of acquisition is said to the kind of linguistic wisdom and behaviour that emerges in L1 and L2 acquisition lower than diversified environmental situations. by means of underscoring age of acquisition as a unifying think about the learn of L2 acquisition and L1 attrition, it truly is claimed that simply as there are age results in L2 acquisition, there also are age results, or perhaps might be a severe interval, in L1 attrition. The ebook covers grownup L2 acquisition, attrition in adults and in young children, and incorporates a comparability of grownup history language audio system and moment language inexperienced persons.
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Additional resources for Incomplete Acquisition in Bilingualism: Re-examining the Age Factor (Studies in Bilingualism, Volume 39)
Although L1 attrition can also occur in childhood, I consider attrition as the loss of a given property y of the language after property y was mastered with native-speaker level of accuracy and remained stable for a while, as in adults. It is important to clarify that attrition and incomplete acquisition in childhood are not mutually exclusive, since both processes can occur simultaneously or sequentially for different grammatical properties. For example, a child of a given age can exhibit incomplete acquisition of property A if the property was present in the input, emerged in the linguistic competence of the child, and became somewhat productive but was never fully mastered by that age, while at the same time, property B (also present with some frequency in the input) may have undergone attrition, if property B was fully mastered at an earlier age but is either produced/understood with a high degree of error or is not present at all at the current age.
Chapter 7 compares the linguistic outcomes of adult L2 learners and heritage speakers, revisiting the central features of adult second language acquisition presented in Chapter 2. On the basis of the existence of age effects in both L1 attrition and L2 acquisition and the context of acquisition in L2 learners and heritage speakers, in Chapter 7 I formulate and evaluate three hypotheses that predict some advantage for heritage speakers over L2 learners. These hypotheses concern early acquired grammatical knowledge, language skill and modality, and potential reactivity to classroom instruction.
Eventually, to overcome L1 influence, the Bulgarian-speaking learners would have to realize that English marks telicity in the object (count vs. mass objects). Since Spanish also marks telicity on the object (and grammatical aspect with preterite-imperfect suffixes on the verb), the Spanish-speaking L2 learners were expected to perform like the English native speaker controls. 2. The results showed that the low proficiency Bulgarian-speaking group performed less accurately than all other groups, including the proficiency-matched Spanish-speaking group, as predicted.