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Your group, g and the others o All users are a = ugo The permissions which can be given to each of these classes are read, write, and execute. ls -l tells you the permissions on a given le. out The rst string here shows the permissions given to the classes. The rst character indicates the le type. - means a normal le. The next three are the permissions for the user. Here the user has read, write, and execute permissions. The group permissions are the next three, and hear are read and execute. The world permissions are the last set, here read and execute again.

This is invaluable for backup processes. tar "| tar xvf -" Or, to send and compress a tar le onto an ftp site, you can use this: ftp> put "| tar cvf - . gz That is, ftp makes a transfer transfer file stdout of cat file and piping this into dest. 30 Intermediate Unix Training dest by e ectively taking the NFS File Permissions: chmod and umask File Permissions state information about accessibility of a le. Properties which are included in le permissions include whether a le is readable, executable, or writable by certain users or groups of users.

The nal use is to store the output of backticks. For instance, an often seen construct is set DATE = `date` Conditionals with if Conditionals allow you to execute parts of code only if certain conditions are true. The conditional construct we will consider in the csh is: if (condition) then statements else statements endif where the else block is optional. =. sh You are not as cool as pwalker as expected. Loops with foreach Using foreach in a csh script is just as simple as using it on the command line, as described in the csh tricks and tips section (p.

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