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By Richard A. Billows

Julius Caesar deals a full of life, enticing, and punctiliously up to date account of Caesar’s existence and occasions. Richard Billows’ dynamic and fast moving narrative deals an imaginitive recounting of activities and occasions, offering the best creation to Julius Caesar for basic readers and scholars of classics and historic background.

The publication is not only a biography of Caesar, yet an ancient account and rationalization of the decline and fall of the Roman Republican governing procedure, within which Caesar performed a vital half. to appreciate Caesar’s lifestyles and position, it will be important to understand the political, social and fiscal difficulties Rome was once grappling with, and the deep divisions inside of Roman society that got here from them. Caesar has been obvious variously as a trifling opportunist, a power-hungry autocrat, an smug aristocrat disdaining competitors, a conventional Roman noble flesh presser who stumbled into civil battle and autocracy due to being misunderstood via his competitors, or even because the perfect guy and development of all virtues. Richard A. Billows argues that such portrayals fail to contemplate the common testimony of our historic resources that Roman political existence was once divided in Caesar’s time into nice political traits, referred to as ''optimates'' and ''populares'' within the assets, of which Caesar got here to be the chief of 1: the ''popularis'' faction.

Billows means that it's only after we see Caesar because the chief of an outstanding political and social stream, that have been suffering from its rival stream for many years and were a number of instances violently repressed during that fight, that we will know how and why Caesar got here to struggle and win a civil warfare, and produce the normal governing procedure of Rome to an finish.


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The lex frumentaria regularized Rome’s food supply and helped ensure that the poorer citizens could find adequate food at an affordable price. The laws forbidding arbitrary execution and judicial murder became an accepted part of Roman law, and were clearly salutary measures. The land allotment law, however, was not much more successful than Tiberius’s had been, and the law on the farming of the Asian taxes led to frightful exploitation of the province of Asia by Roman tax farmers, with the connivance of provincial governors.

Provinces were systematically misruled and often shamelessly plundered, giving rise eventually to the perceived need for permanent courts to try the endless complaints of harassed provincials against bad governors. Wars were at times provoked for no reason other than a commander’s desire for glory and booty. Wars were almost routinely mismanaged, so that it became almost commonplace for Roman wars to start with a disaster or two, and Roman armies frequently became severely demoralized as a result.

In order to ensure that Marius would remain firmly in charge of dealing with the German threat, the people – against all precedent – re-elected him to successive consulships for each of these years. He reformed the combat training of the Roman soldiery, using experts from the gladiatorial schools to impart greater skill with weapons and hand-to-hand combat. He changed the tactical formation of the legion, using the 600-strong cohort as the basis for intra-legionary organization in place of the old 200-strong maniple.

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