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By Irena Backus

Irena Backus deals an exam of Leibniz as either pupil and theologian, illuminating the connection among metaphysics and theology in Leibniz's dealing with of key theological problems with his time: predestination, sacred historical past, the Eucharist, and efforts for a union among Lutherans and Catholics and among Lutherans and Calvinists.

summary: Irena Backus bargains an exam of Leibniz as either pupil and theologian, illuminating the connection among metaphysics and theology in Leibniz's dealing with of key theological problems with his time: predestination, sacred heritage, the Eucharist, and efforts for a union among Lutherans and Catholics and among Lutherans and Calvinists

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Indeed there is nothing stopping God from increasing the mass or density of matter without increasing its dimensions. When we note that a blow delivered with a piece of iron is heavier than a blow delivered at the same speed with a stick of wood of the same size, this of course is partly due to a natural cause, as wood contains more heterogeneous liquid which cannot be moved all at once, hence the blow does not come from all the matter included under its dimension. But God can keep the same matter [for example, wood] and speed and can bring it about that a blow delivered from it is heavier so that I do not see why bodies should not just appear (in speciem) but also really differ in respect to their mass or specific density.

Leibniz maintains that there are such things as real accidents that can exist independently of their substance: This antitypia, or mass, and this striving for action (conatus) or the motive force are distinguished from the initial power of suffering and resistance and from the substantial form or the initial capacity for action which others call the first act. This is because secondary powers can be coerced and strained while the initial ones remain intact. Indeed there is nothing stopping God from increasing the mass or density of matter without increasing its dimensions.

Furthermore, he contends that he defines transubstantiation as change of substantial form (formae substantialis mutatio). While such a change certainly takes place, the substitution of one mind for another does not correspond to the scholastic notion of transubstantiation, which requires that a change of substance, in the sense of matter, also takes place in the elements themselves. Convincing though his argument is, it is doubtful that his doctrine would have won the approval of the Roman Catholic Church.

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