By E. Fred Schubert
Revised moment version, devoted to the know-how and physics of LEDs. compatible for scientists, engineers, and graduate scholars.
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Light-emitting diodes” in Handbook of Semiconductors edited by T. S. Moss, 4, edited by 25 1 History of light-emitting diodes C. Hilsum, p. 539 (1981) Pilkuhn M. , personal communication. The photograph of GaP:Zn-O LED is gratefully acknowledged (2000) Potter R. , Blank J. , and Addamiano A. “Silicon carbide light-emitting diodes” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2253 (1969) Quist T. , Rediker R. , Keyes R. , Krag W. , McWhorter A. L. and Zeigler H. J. “Semiconductor maser of GaAs” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91 (1962) Rostky G.
Light-emitting diode with an electrically conductive window” US Patent 5,008,718 (1991) Foster L. M. and Pilkuhn M. “Electroluminescence near bandgap in GaP containing shallow donor and acceptor levels” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 65 (1965) Grimmeiss H. G. and Scholz H. J. “Efficiency of recombination radiation in GaP” Phys. Lett. 8, 233 (1964) Groves W. , Herzog A. , and Craford M. G. “The effect of nitrogen doping on GaAs1–xPx electroluminescent diodes” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 184 (1971) Groves W. O.
1) where Hmj′ is the transition matrix element. For the one-dimensional case with a dependence on only the spatial variable x, the matrix element that connects the (initial) jth state with the (final) mth state via the perturbation hamiltonian H ′, is given by ′ H mj = ψ 0m H ′ ψ 0j = ∞ ∫ − ∞ ψ m ( x) 0* A( x) ψ 0j ( x) dx . e. H ′ = A(x) [ exp (iω0t) + exp (– iω0t) ], as expected for the excitation by a harmonic wave of a photon. 2) indicates that a necessary condition for recombination is spatial overlap between electron and hole wave functions.