Download Lightandmatter 2-Conservation Laws by Benjamin Crowell PDF

By Benjamin Crowell

Conservation legislation. Physics textbook. comprises bankruptcy 1 - Conservation of strength, bankruptcy 2 - Simplifying the power Zoo, bankruptcy three - paintings: The move of Mechanical strength, bankruptcy four - Conservation of Momentum, bankruptcy five - Conservation of Angular Momentum, recommendations to chose difficulties, and thesaurus.

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In general, the term potential energy, with algebra symbol PE, is used for the energy associated with the distance between two objects that attract or repel each other via a force that depends on the distance between them. Forces that are not determined by distance do not have potential energy associated with them. For instance, the normal force acts only between objects that have zero distance between them, and depends on other factors besides the fact that the distance is zero. There is no potential energy associated with the normal force.

158 xo stretched m / The spring does work on the cart. ) F x-xo x . The minus sign is because this is the force being exerted by the spring, not the force that would have to act on the spring to keep it at this position. That is, if the position of the cart in figure m is to the right of equilibrium, the spring pulls back to the left, and vice-versa. 1 W = − k (x − xo )2 2 area = work performed n / The area of the shaded triangle gives the work done by the spring as the cart moves from the equilibrium position to position x.

When a particular molecule goes on or off duty, it moves, and since it moves while exerting a force, it is doing work. There is work, but it is work 50 Chapter 3 Work: The Transfer of Mechanical Energy done by one molecule in a muscle cell on another. Positive and negative work When object A transfers energy to object B, we say that A does positive work on B. B is said to do negative work on A. In other words, a machine like a tractor is defined as doing positive work. This use of the plus and minus signs relates in a logical and consistent way to their use in indicating the directions of force and motion in one dimension.

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