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By Harold F. Schiffman

By means of taking a look heavily on the multilingual democracies of India, France and the us, Harold F. Schiffman examines how language coverage is essentially a social build in keeping with trust structures, attitudes and myths.Linguistic tradition and Language coverage exposes language coverage as culture-specific, assisting us to appreciate why language guidelines evolve the best way they do; why they paintings, or no longer; and the way people's lives are laid low with them. those concerns may be of particular curiosity to linguists specialising in multilingual/multicultural societies, bilingual educationalists, curriculum planners and academics.

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Ferguson proposes to lump these together enclosed by braces, with a raised plus sign after the number of major languages, that is 5+{V}. Ferguson also notes a number of other kinds of information that might be useful to note in a linguistic situation, but are hard to symbolize without unnecessary complexity. One would be the extent of dialect diversity:11 the amount of bilingualism or multilingualism, the difference between indigenous and immigrant languages, and information about literacy rates and writing systems.

36 In a later chapter, we will examine in detail some facts of language policy that seem strongly correlated with religion in various parts of the world. • India: In India there exist differently named speech varieties whose speakers classify them as different languages, but which linguists can find almost mutually indistinguishable. Hindi is the ‘language’ declared by Hindus; Urdu is declared (in the Indian census) by Muslims (Khubchandani 1983). • Former Yugoslavia: A similar dichotomy exists in the former Yugoslavia between the Serbian and Croatian literary ‘languages’, maintained primarily by the identification of Serbian with Eastern Orthodoxy and the Cyrillic script, while Croatian is written with the roman alphabet and is associated with Roman Catholicism.

Being official in the nation. • Being the language of education of more than half of secondaryschool graduates of the nation. 2 A minor language (Lmin) is characterized by: • Being spoken natively by no more than 25 per cent of the population but by no less than 5 per cent or 100,000 speakers. 38 Typologies of multilingualism and language • Being used as a medium of instruction above the first years of primary school. 3 Languages of special status (Lspec) are characterized by: • Not falling into above categories.

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