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By Ernst Fraenkel

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G. acquisition, input, interaction, meaning, review). A major result of this study is that a word can only be described as general service, academic or technical in context. 2 Chung and Nation’s (2003: 105) rating scale for finding technical terms, as applied to the field of anatomy Step 1 Words such as function words that have a meaning that has no particular relationship with the field of anatomy, that is, words independent of the subject matter. Examples are: the, is, between, it, by, adjacent, amounts, common, commonly, directly, constantly, early and especially Step 2 Words that have a meaning that is minimally related to the field of anatomy in that they describe the positions, movements, or features of the body.

The advantages and disadvantages of a keyword list are discussed and the criteria of range and evenness of distribution are proposed to refine the list of potential academic words (Steps 3 and 4). In the last part of the chapter, I give a description of the final list of potential academic words, the Academic Keyword List, and investigate whether its constituents fit my definition of academic vocabulary. This provides a check on the accuracy of the retrieval procedure (Step 5). 1. g. Johansson, 1978; Coxhead, 2000; Mudraya, 2006) have principally considered book sections, journal articles and textbooks.

These are ‘items which signal the writer’s intentions or his evaluation of the material presented’ (Baker, 1988: 92). Martin uses the term academic vocabulary as a synonym for sub-technical vocabulary to refer to words that ‘have in common a focus on research, analysis and evaluation – those activities which characterize academic work’ (1976: 92). g. state the hypothesis and expected results; present the methodology; plan or design the experiment; develop a model). g. consist of, group, result from, derive, bring about, cause, base on, be noted for.

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