By Linda Wong
This ebook offers a scientific research that defines and bills for the contours and operation of China's welfare procedure. it's underpinned via fresh empirical examine and powerful comparative thought, and may be welcomed as an important enhance in furthering our knowing of social welfare in China.
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Additional info for Marginalization and Social Welfare in China
This is no easy task. To find one that fits China’s special situations is more daunting still. 2 billion population is 22 per cent of mankind. It has a documented history of four millennia and is very conscious of its heritage. Its continental size has vast regional diversity. Its government system is buttressed by communist ideology and domination by one party. In terms of economic organization, public ownership and state control are still prominent. Only in the last seventeen years have markets re-emerged.
Partly motivated by ideology and partly by strong desires to catch up with the West as soon as possible, all socialist states pursued common political and economic programmes after seizing power. The measures included land reform, nationalization of firms, heavy investment in heavy industries, and price and wage policy (Furtak 1986). They all have the aims of equalization, creating employment (and preventing unemployment), and ensuring adequate, if only basic standards of life (Ferge 1979, George and Manning 1980, Deacon 1983).
During severe natural disasters, temporary agencies were also set up to coordinate the overall relief efforts. In the regions (provincial and county level), social welfare work went to departments of civil affairs (minzheng ting/minzheng ke). The proliferation of charitable bodies, state and society, prompted the government to announce governing regulations in 1928 and 1929 (Zhang 1962:1153). A poll conducted by the Department of Social Affairs in August 1945 counted a total of 4,172 relief and charitable associations, including eight operated by central government, 84 by provincial governments, 2,092 under city and county administrations, 1,765 operated by charitable bodies and 204 by religious organizations.