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By E. Amtmann

According to the classical concept of sensible constitution of bone which was once constructed through J. Wolff (1884, 1892) and W. Roux (1895) following the investigations of the useful structure of the substantia spongiosa by way of H. von Meyer (1867), bone is "functionally" laid down in gross shape in addition to in minute structure according to the "maximum-minimum-law". because of useful edition, a greatest of potency is completed with at the least fabric (Kummer, 1962a). during this feel practical model is a response of variation of the idiotype-within the limits of the response norm-to a replaced inner setting, that's subsequently an variation to replaced mechanical stresses. 1. The Formation of the conventional Femur form The heredity foundation of form features of human femora is actually unknown. exact twins convey an important reduce variability of size of femur than binovular twins. inhabitants variability of size of femur because of heritability could exceed two times the variety because of environmental components (Knussmann, 1968). an important a part of the whole version of femur form features is still accordingly unexplained supposing that the assets of version because of heritability and environmental elements also are approximately an identical for the opposite traits.

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70, so that Fig. 16 shows which of the 20 mean values differ from each other significantly. e. the lateral and medial strength zones remain, on the average, almost equally strong and the observed differences could have been due to sampling. In the three Mechanics, Adaptation and Variation of the Human Femur 1 2 3 4 37 5 Site of cross-section Fig. 16. The mean breaking strength of bone samples taken from four cross-sectional positions of five transverse sections of the human femur proximal cross-sections, the differences between the lateral and ventral positions are significant, and in the fifth cross-section, in which the mean breaking strength of the medial position generally exceeds the lateral, the medial position differs significantly from the ventral.

It is questionable whether the first variable determines the second, or the second the first, or possibly a third variable, or even a group of variables produces the relationship between the first two variables. This can be shown more clearly through a theoretical example. We construct N cylinders of wood, whose cross-sectional radius and height we take from a linearally ascending function, that is, a greater radius should correspond to a greater cylinder height. Then we mix the cylinders and bore centrally a smaller one from each, the radius of which is also taken from a given linear function.

14 are obtained. These show, that within a cross-section, the density loss decreases with an increase in the original density, i. e. the denser the femur sample among younger females the less is the density loss of the corresponding test sample among the older females. e. the calculated regression lines are reciprocally displaced in the direction of the percent scale so that the regression "total" for the aggregated samles of all five cross-sections is obtained. This shows a counter tendency for the total random sample and describes, for the total tendency, a decreasing density loss from the proximal to the distal end.

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