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Extra resources for Modern electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles: fundamentals, theory, and design
Improving the fuel economy of vehicles has a crucial impact on oil supply. So far, the most promising technologies are hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. Hybrid vehicles, using current internal combustion engines (ICEs) as their primary power source and batteries/electric motors as the peaking power source, have a much higher operation efficiency than those powered by ICEs alone. The hardware and software of this technology are almost ready for industrial manufacturing. On the other hand, fuel cell vehicles, which are potentially more efficient and cleaner than hybrid electric vehicles, are still in the laboratory stage and it will take a long time to overcome technical hurdles for commercialization.
The gearbox provides a number of gear reduction ratios ranging from three to five for passenger cars and more for heavy commercial vehicles that are powered with gasoline or diesel engines. , the smallest ratio). , the maximum ratio) is determined by the requirement of the maximum tractive effort or the gradeability. 15. In the first iteration, gear ratios between the highest and the lowest gear may be selected in such a way that the engine can operate in the same speed range for all the gears.
The base was a small electric vehicle, with a nickel–metal hydride battery pack and a three-phase induction motor. A small two-cylinder gasoline engine was used to recharge the batteries and provide additional power for high-speed cruising. The most significant effort in the development and commercialization of hybrid electric vehicles was made by Japanese manufacturers. In 1997, Toyota released the Prius sedan in Japan. Honda also released its Insight and Civic Hybrid. These vehicles are now available throughout the world.