By Robertus Potting, Ana M. Mourao, Mario Pimenta
The Fourth foreign Workshop on New Worlds in Astroparticle Physics was once the newest within the biennial sequence, held in Faro, Portugal. this system integrated either invited and contributed talks. all the classes opened with a pedagogical evaluation of the present kingdom of the respective box. the subsequent subject matters have been lined: cosmological parameters; neutrino physics and astrophysics; gravitational waves; past regular versions: strings; cosmic rays: starting place, propagation and interplay; subject below severe stipulations; supernovae and darkish topic.
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Extra info for New Worlds in Astroparticle Physics: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop, Faro, Portugal 5 O 7 September 2002
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This is, however, a serious challenge for theoretical physics and we may actually require observations to help narrow down the theoretical possibilities. 1. Lumpy stars As soon as a newly born neutron star cools below roughly 10 10 K (within a few minutes) its outer layers will begin to crystallize, forming what is known as the neutron star crust. Even though this crust is not very rigid — in fact, it is rather jelly-like — it can sustain shear stresses. This means that one can envisage a neutron star with a "mountain" which radiates gravitational waves at twice the stars spin-frequency.
It is the task of the forthcoming experiments like Auger and EUSO to clarify the situation and show whether the GZK effect is present or not. In particular, the measurement of the CR spectrum at GZK energies will provide a strong check of Lorentz invariance (or the discovery of its violation) since the Lorentz factor involved is extremely large 8 ~ 10 11 . Furthermore, Auger and EUSO should be able to see or reject the pileup effect. The pileup effect is an enhancement of the CR spectrum just below 26 the GZK cutoff due to CR starting out at higher energies and crowding up at or below the GZK energy8 Let us make a short comment about the so-called top-down scenarios.