By Robert J. Gillies
This publication presents a complete evaluate of recent nuclear magnetic resonance ways to biomedical difficulties in vivo utilizing state of the art recommendations. It devotes equivalent realization to the tools and purposes of NMR and addresses the opportunity of all of the innovations mentioned. the quantity contains late-breaking components corresponding to practical imaging, movement imaging, bioreactor spectroscopy, and chemical shift imaging. All chapters are written in a ''current concepts'' variety that renders details obtainable to readers in any respect degrees. individuals are recognized specialists within the box, lending the e-book a global standpoint
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This usually differs slightly from the applied field. A number of factors can influence the local field: 27 2 • Imaging, Diffusion, Perfusion, and Flow 1. The local field is very sensitive to the chemical environment of the nucleus (see Chap. 1). A nucleus in a molecule with a large electron cloud (such as the hydrogen nuclei in hydro carbons) is shielded from the main magnetic field and experiences a local field which is sev eral parts per million lower than that of the applied field. A nucleus which is less shielded (such as hydrogen nuclei in water molecules where the electronegative oxygen withdraws electrons) experiences a field which is closer to the applied field.
This causes dephasing of nuclear magnetic mo ments in the X Y plane. The Fourier transform of the decay of the water signal in the XY plane as a function of time is a profile of the proton density in the test tube. , in gauss/cm) then we can determine how long the test tube is, based on the width of the profile. For example, if the applied magnetic field gradient is 1 G/cm, or about 4250 Hz/cm for protons, a 5-cm-long test tube will give a signal with a bandwidth of approximately 21,250 Hz (Fig.
In a conventional phase-encoding experiment a se ries of M R signals is acquired following application of phase-encoding gradients which are incremented through a series of amplitudes. As a result, the phases of M R signals change as a function of the distance of nuclei from the magnet center and the size of the phase-encod ing gradient. Fig. , the cosine of the phase of magnetization) at two different positions along the phase-encoding gradient as a function of the size of the phase-encoding gradient which is applied.