Download Novel surfactants: preparation, applications, and by Krister Holmberg PDF

By Krister Holmberg

This paintings pinpoints the coaching equipment, physiochemical houses, environmental effect and purposes of newly constructed surfactants, a lot of that are destined for massive large use sooner or later. It specializes in the synthesis and houses of "green" surfactants incorporating environmentally-friendly features.

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Extra resources for Novel surfactants: preparation, applications, and biodegradability

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It decomposes at its upper temperature limit via peritectic disproportionation [28] to form a more dilute liquid plus a more concentrated cubic phase. The phase reaction that occurs on heating is: The next more concentrated liquid crystal past the hexagonal phase is a cubic phase, which is sandwiched between the hexagonal and the lamellar phase. From its position one may infer that it has a bicontinuous phase structure [29], but this was not established experimentally. The lower boundary of the lamellar liquid crystal phase region also has a classical form that is truncated by the 100% border of the diagram.

6. A particularly important result of this study was the observation that the first-onset temperature observed along all the isopleths of aqueous mixtures studied using DSC lies below the temperature of the Krafft eutectic. The temperature of this eutectic was estimated from the return-to-baseline temperature of the DSC scans at compositions below the cusp in the liquid boundary at the Krafft eutectic and was independently determined during the DIT studies. 2°C. The DIT estimate of the Krafft eutectic was 48°C (Table 2).

This phenomenon has long been recognized, and this system is unusual with respect to most surfactant-water phase diagrams only in that it intersects the 100% DMG border. This curve is interrupted only by narrow discontinuities that are associated with changes of state in liquid crystal phase structures and merges smoothly with the Krafft boundary to the left of the diagram. It has been noted that this Page 23 form bears a remarkable resemblance to a great many recrystallization phase diagrams in nonsurfactant systems [31].

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