By Stephen Boag
The single cease document books were designed by scientific scholars for clinical scholars to consolidate their wisdom, topic through topic and procedure through approach. for every sector studied there are just such a lot of questions an examiner can ask; they're provided right here with transparent causes that let the scholar to revise completely one subject at a time.
While doing so the coed may also preparation their examination strategy. each one publication comprises MCQs, EMQs, SAQs and Problem-based Questions - precisely the form of questions they're going to get of their exams.
Illustrated with basic, easy-to-reproduce line drawings, scientific scholars have during this one quantity all that they wish for examination luck.
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Extra resources for One Stop Doc Immunology
Microorganisms typically contain molecular motifs known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPs (17a). PAMPs are invariant within a pathogen class, essential for pathogen survival and not seen as part of the normal host (17b). Well-characterized PAMPs include lipopolysaccharide present in Gram-negative bacterial cells walls, unmethylated repeats of CpG present in bacterial DNA and double-stranded RNA seen in viral infection (17c). Innate receptors that recognize PAMPs are termed pattern-recognition receptors or PRRs (17d).
It is also found as single antibody molecules on the surface of naive B cells, where it acts as an antigen receptor (B cell receptor; BCR). Answers 10. a – IgG, b – IgG, c – IgM and IgD, d – IgE, e – IgA, f – IgM, g – IgA, h – IgG, i – IgA 46 ONE STOP DOC 11. Put the following statements regarding the generation of heavy-chain diversity in the correct order a. The DNA encoding the heavy chain is transcribed to produce a primary mRNA transcript b. The recombinase enzyme complex joins a random D segment to a J segment c.
They are known to be vital in containing viral infection by acting to remove virally infected host cells. NK cell killing is dependent upon the interaction of both inhibitory and activating NK receptors that bind components of the host cell surfaces. NK cells are activated by recognition of ‘altered self ’ and ‘missing self ’. • Altered self refers to the change in cell surface components that results from viral infection. For example, the cell may upregulate expression of stress molecules, such as MICA (major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A), which in turn bind activating NK cell receptors and result in infected cell death.