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19 (1917) 82. 22 20 Introduction to Quantum Physics systems which were not separable, but still were integrable. However, more general aperiodic phenomena, such as the scattering of atoms or their interaction in the formation of molecules, remained practically untouched. The next progress was due to de Broglie. 24 His doctoral thesis, submitted in 1924, was effectively the counterpart of the hypothesis that Einstein had proposed in 1905 to explain the photoelectric effect. Not only were electromagnetic waves endowed with particle-like properties, but material particles such as electrons could display wave-like behavior.

This point will be discussed in Chapter 12). Moreover, we must interpret the experimental outcomes produced by our equipment. We do that by constructing a theoretical model whereby the behavior of the macroscopic equipment is described by a few degrees of freedom, interacting with those of the microscopic system under observation. We then call this a “measurement” of the microscopic system. The logical conclusion from this procedure was drawn long ago by Kemble:17 We have no satisfactory reason for ascribing objective existence to physical quantities as distinguished from the numbers obtained when we make the measurements which we correlate with them.

Can we draw from it reliable conclusions? Moreover, Eq. 11) assumes that, in these three possible but incompatible experiments, the magnetic moment of the silver atom has the same orientation. That is, our freedom of choice for the orientation of the magnet does not affect the silver atoms that evaporate from the oven. If you think that this is obvious, wait until after you have read Chapter 6. What is a measurement? 17 A measurement is not a passive acquisition of knowledge. It is an active process, making use of extremely complex equipment, usually involving irreversible amplification mechanisms.

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