By Abraham Silberschatz
The 9th version of working method innovations keeps to conform to supply a fantastic theoretical origin for figuring out working platforms. This version has been up-to-date with extra wide insurance of the most up-tp-date subject matters and functions, superior conceptual assurance and extra content material to bridge the distance among innovations and real implementations. a brand new layout permits more uncomplicated navigation and complements reader motivation. extra end-of-chapter, workouts, assessment questions, and programming workouts support to extra strengthen vital recommendations. WileyPLUS, together with a try financial institution, self-check routines, and a scholar ideas handbook, can also be a part of the excellent aid package deal.
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Extra resources for Operating System Concepts
A single program cannot, in general, keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times. Single users frequently have multiple programs running. Multiprogramming increases CPU utilization by organizing jobs (code and data) so that the CPU always has one to execute. 9). Since, in general, main memory is too small to accommodate all jobs, the jobs are kept initially on the disk in the job pool. This pool consists of all processes residing on disk awaiting allocation of main memory. The set of jobs in memory can be a subset of the jobs kept in the job pool.
Operating systems exist because they offer a reasonable way to solve the problem of creating a usable computing system. The fundamental goal of computer systems is to execute user programs and to make solving user problems easier. Computer hardware is constructed toward this goal. Since bare hardware alone is not particularly easy to use, application programs are developed. These programs require certain common operations, such as those controlling the I/O devices. The common functions of controlling and allocating resources are then brought together into one piece of software: the operating system.
Solid-state disks have several variants but in general are faster than magnetic disks and are nonvolatile. One type of solid-state disk stores data in a large DRAM array during normal operation but also contains a hidden magnetic hard disk and a battery for backup power. If external power is interrupted, this solid-state disk’s controller copies the data from RAM to the magnetic disk. When external power is restored, the controller copies the data back into RAM. Another form of solid-state disk is ﬂash memory, which is popular in cameras and personal digital assistants (PDAs), in robots, and increasingly for storage on general-purpose computers.