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By Y. Lin

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2, (March 2000), pp. 237-249 Transcriptional Control of Osteogenesis 19 Retting, K. , Yoon, B. S. & Lyons, K. M. (2009) BMP canonical Smad signaling through Smad1 and Smad5 is required for endochondral bone formation. 7, (April 2009), pp. 1093-1104 Rountree, R. , Marks, M. , Mishina, Y. & Kingsley, D. M. (2004) BMP receptor signaling is required for postnatal maintenance of articular cartilage. 11, (November 2004), e355. Ryu, J. , Kim, S. , Kim, S. , Oh, C. , Hwang, S. , Chun, C. , Oh, S. , Seong, J.

Thereafter, these cells stop proliferating, enlarge, modifiy the ECM composition by changing the type of collagen they secrete, and finally direct the mineralization of the new formed tissue. These hyperthrophic chondrocytes (HC) signal to adjacent perichondrial cells to stimulate their osteogenic differentiation and to promote vascular invasion. In this way, the primitive bone tissue, the primary “spongiosa”, is formed starting from the center of the cartilage mold and proceeding to surrounding cells, following a longitudinal direction in long bones.

The BMP2 signaling involved in the osteoblast differentiation program, proceed downstream of the Smad cascade with the recruitment of osteo-specific transcription factors. , 1997). , 2002). , 2006). The zinc finger-containing transcription factor Osterix (Osx) represents another piece in the mosaic work of Bmp2 action. Osx is expressed in developing bones and seems to act in the terminal differentiation of osteoblasts. , 2002). 10). , 2006). , 1999). , 2006). 3 BMP antagnosists, inhibitors and further interactions BMP signaling is modulated at different levels: extracellular BMP antagonists compete for receptor binding on the cell surface; inhibitory Smads and interacting molecules can interfere with the correct function of the intracellular Smad cascade; furthermore, alternative signals from co-existing transduction pathways converge on the same downstream targets to cooperate or antagonize BMP function on gene expression and protein processing.

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